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Teratozoospermia is a condition characterized by an abnormal shape or structure of sperm, which can affect male fertility. Understanding its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment is crucial for individuals experiencing challenges with fertility. In this article, we will delve into the various aspects of teratozoospermia to provide comprehensive information on this topic.

What is Teratozoospermia?

Teratozoospermia, also known as teratospermia, is a condition where a significant portion of a man's sperm has an abnormal shape or structure. Sperm morphology, or the shape of sperm, is an important factor in male fertility. Normal sperm have an oval head and a long tail, enabling them to effectively penetrate and fertilize the egg. However, in teratozoospermia, the sperm can have head, tail, or midpiece abnormalities, reducing the chances of successful fertilization.

Who can get Teratozoospermia?

Teratozoospermia can affect men of all ages and backgrounds. It is a relatively common condition among men facing fertility issues. Couples struggling to conceive should consider both partners undergoing fertility evaluations, including a sperm analysis, to determine if teratozoospermia or other factors may be contributing to the difficulty in achieving pregnancy.

What are the Types of Teratozoospermia?

Teratozoospermia is classified into various types based on the severity and specific abnormalities in sperm morphology. The classification includes:

1. Mild Teratozoospermia:

In mild teratozoospermia, a relatively small proportion of sperm within a semen sample exhibit abnormal morphology. While there is no universally defined threshold, it is generally considered that less than 40% of sperm with normal morphology would fall under this category. Couples with mild teratozoospermia may experience slightly reduced fertility, but the chances of natural conception are still feasible.

2. Moderate Teratozoospermia:

Moderate teratozoospermia is characterized by a higher percentage of sperm with abnormal morphology in the semen sample. Typically, this category includes cases where 40% to 70% of sperm exhibit abnormal shapes or sizes. Couples facing moderate teratozoospermia may encounter greater difficulties in achieving pregnancy through natural means and might need to explore assisted reproductive techniques.

3. Severe Teratozoospermia:

Severe teratozoospermia indicates a substantial proportion of sperm with abnormal morphology. In such cases, over 70% of the sperm within the semen sample exhibit structural deviations. The chances of natural conception are significantly diminished for couples with severe teratozoospermia. Assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are often recommended to increase the likelihood of successful conception.

4. Astheno Teratozoospermia:

Astheno teratozoospermia is a combination of two factors: abnormal sperm morphology and reduced sperm motility (asthenozoospermia). In addition to having sperm with abnormal shapes, individuals with astheno teratozoospermia experience difficulties due to reduced sperm movement. This dual challenge can further impact the ability of sperm to reach and fertilize the egg, necessitating specialized fertility treatments.

5. Oligo Astheno Teratozoospermia:

Oligo astheno teratozoospermia is a complex condition that encompasses abnormal sperm morphology, reduced motility, and a low sperm count (oligospermia). This trifecta of challenges poses a significant hurdle for couples aiming to conceive naturally. Fertility specialists often recommend a thorough evaluation and tailored treatment plans that address all three aspects to optimize the chances of successful conception.

Severe teratozoospermia indicates a higher proportion of significantly misshapen sperm, potentially leading to more severe fertility challenges.

What are the Causes of Teratozoospermia?

Several factors can contribute to teratozoospermia:

1. Genetic Factors:

Genetic abnormalities can affect sperm morphology, leading to teratozoospermia. Certain chromosomal conditions may also result in an increased incidence of abnormally shaped sperm.

2. Lifestyle Factors:

Habits like smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, drug use, poor diet, and lack of exercise can adversely affect sperm quality, including morphology. Environmental factors, such as exposure to toxins and radiation, can also play a role.

3. Hormonal Imbalances:

Disruptions in hormone levels, particularly hormones involved in sperm production, can impact sperm morphology. Hormonal imbalances can result from various medical conditions, medications, or lifestyle choices.

4. Varicocele:

Varicocele is the enlargement of veins within the scrotum, which can affect sperm production and quality. It is a common cause of teratozoospermia and may require medical and surgical interventions to improve fertility.

5. Testicular Overheating:

Excessive heat around the testicles, often caused by tight underwear, hot baths, or prolonged sitting, can affect sperm morphology. Maintaining an optimal testicular temperature is crucial for normal sperm development.

What are the Symptoms of Teratozoospermia?

Teratozoospermia typically doesn't present any specific symptoms, making it challenging to identify without a semen analysis. The condition is often discovered during fertility testing or when couples experience difficulty conceiving.

Does Teratozoospermia affect Fertility?

Teratozoospermia can significantly impact fertility. Abnormally shaped sperm may have reduced motility and decreased ability to penetrate the egg, resulting in reduced fertility. Severe teratozoospermia can increase the difficulty of achieving a successful pregnancy without medical intervention.

How is Teratozoospermia Diagnosed?

1. Lifestyle Changes:

Making positive lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, reducing alcohol intake, maintaining a healthy diet, and exercising regularly, can help improve sperm quality, including morphology.

2. Hormonal Therapy:

If teratozoospermia is due to hormonal imbalances, hormone replacement therapy or other hormonal treatments may be recommended to restore normal hormone levels and improve sperm morphology.

3. Varicocele Repair:

For individuals with varicocele, a surgical procedure to repair the enlarged veins can improve sperm quality and potentially enhance fertility.

4. Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART):

In severe cases of teratozoospermia, where natural conception is challenging, couples may opt for assisted reproductive techniques like In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) or Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). These techniques involve selecting and using the healthiest sperm for fertilization, increasing the chances of a successful pregnancy.


Teratozoospermia is a condition that can significantly impact male fertility. Understanding its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options is vital for individuals and couples facing challenges in conceiving. By seeking appropriate medical evaluation and exploring treatment options, individuals with teratozoospermia can increase their chances of achieving a successful pregnancy.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Can teratozoospermia be cured completely?


Teratozoospermia can be managed and treated to improve sperm quality, but a complete cure may not always be possible. The extent of improvement depends on the underlying causes and the effectiveness of the chosen treatment.

Does teratozoospermia always cause infertility?


While teratozoospermia can reduce fertility by affecting sperm quality and function, it doesn't always cause infertility. The degree of impact on fertility varies based on the severity of the condition and other factors affecting sperm health.

Are there natural remedies to improve sperm morphology?


Maintaining a healthy lifestyle through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and avoiding harmful habits like smoking and excessive alcohol consumption can positively influence sperm morphology. However, it's essential to consult a healthcare professional for personalized advice.

How long does it take to see improvements in sperm morphology with treatment?


The timeframe for seeing improvements in sperm morphology varies depending on the chosen treatment and the individual's response. It may take several months of consistent treatment and lifestyle changes before significant improvements are observed.

Can teratozoospermia be inherited?


Teratozoospermia can have genetic components, and certain genetic abnormalities may increase the likelihood of abnormal sperm morphology. However, it's essential to consult with a genetic counsellor or healthcare provider to understand the specific genetic implications.


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