Ovarian cyst is the fluid filled sac in ovary. This is one among the most common abnormal condition found in ovary. There are many types of ovarian cysts.
It can be functional that produce normal female hormones. Basically, two types of functional cysts are produced during the process of egg maturation and rupture.
Follicular cyst when the egg that was supposed to be ruptured doesn’t rupture and continues to grow. It usually produces one of the female hormones (oestrogen) and can grow up to size of 5 cm in diameter.
Second type of functional cyst are corpus luteal cyst, which are produced after rupture of ovarian follicle in natural manner but instead of degeneration it continues to produce hormone (progesterone) and accumulation of fluid / blood inside ovary forms the cyst.
Other common types of cyst are:
a). Endometriotic cyst:
This type of cyst develops when the cells present in the inner lining of uterus grow outside of uterus (endometriosis). Some of the tissue can get attached to/ implanted into the ovarian tissue and start growing. The endometrial lining cell has the property to shed and bleed periodically and same happens with these cells also leading to periodical accumulation of blood inside the cyst. These accumulated blood and debris causes intense inflammation and produce a lot of toxic product that causes severe pain during periods, hampers the egg quality, and decreases the probability of becoming pregnant naturally as well in IVF cycles.
b). Dermoid cysts:
Also called teratomas, these can contain tissue, such as hair, skin or teeth, because they form from embryonic cells. They’re rarely cancerous.
These develop on the surface of an ovary and might be filled with a watery or a mucous material.
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