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What is Azoospermia? Azoospermia occurs when there is no sperm in the ejaculate. Read more to learn about azoospermia treatment and diagnosis at Indira IVF.

Around 1% of all the adult males in the common population are afflicted by Azoospermia, and also Azoospermic males make up around 10 to 15% of all the infertile adult males. Hence, this number of affected individuals corresponds to a substantial population in the area of male infertility described Dr. Swati Mothe ( Indira IVF infertility clinic and test tube baby centre in Hyderabad) while addressing a seminar of infertile couples at the Indira IVF clinic in Hyderabad.

Azoospermia is the deficiency of sperm in no less than 2 totally different ejaculate samples (which includes the centrifuged sediment). In the common population, 10 to 15% of partners are afflicted by infertility problems. Around 50% of such situations can be attributable to a male issue. Of these infertile adult males, 10 to 20% (or even 1% of most adult males in the general public) are afflicted by it.

A comprehensive background check, a physical exam, a hormone report, imaging as well as genetic counselling are very important to ascertain the precise medical category of the Azoospermia.

This factor is very important considering the fact that, for instance, obstructive Azoospermia (OA), as well as non-obstructive Azoospermia (NOA), needs diverse treatment method. In the following chapter, we will provide a detailed understanding of this male issue and the complete treatment through IVF-ICSI and medications explained Dr. Proshun Bera ( Indira IVF centre in Kolkata).

Azoospermia and its treatment through IVF-ICSI

New developments

The development of ICSI in 1993 transformed the cure for male issue infertility. To get the sperm to be used in IVF /ICSI, a needle aspiration of the testis or simply epididymis could be carried out under localized anaesthesia in circumstances of obstructive Azoospermia notified Dr. Swati Mothe ( Indira IVF clinic in Hyderabad).

What is Azoospermia?

Answer: Azoospermia is the medical disorder of a male whose semen has absolutely no sperm. This is connected with infertility, but most types are receptive to medical care. In human beings, it has an effect on around 1% of the men populace and even might be observed in around 20% of male infertility conditions replied Dr. Swati Mothe ( Indira IVF infertility clinic and test tube baby centre in Hyderabad).

What are the different classifications of Azoospermia?

Answer: Azoospermia often is categorised into 3 main categories as outlined below:


Pre-testicular Azoospermia is characterised by insufficient stimulation of usually regular testicles as well as the genital path. Usually, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ranges are lower (hypogonadotropic) commensurate with an insufficient stimulus of the testes to generate sperm.

Some examples consist of hypopituitarism (for a number of causes), hyperprolactinemia, as well as exogenous FSH suppression by testosterone. Chemotherapy might restrain spermatogenesis. Pre-testicular Azoospermia is observed in around 2% of it. Pre-testicular Azoospermia is a type of Non-obstructive Azoospermia.


In such a condition the testes are anomalous, atrophic, or even missing, and also sperm generation seriously disrupted to missing. FSH quantities are usually raised (hyper gonadotropic) since the feedback loop is disrupted (insufficient feed-back delay on FSH).

The problem is observed in 49–93% of adult males with Azoospermia. Testicular malfunction consists of lack of a failure generation in addition to lower generation and even maturation seize through the procedure of spermatogenesis.

Reasons for testicular malfunction consist of congenital difficulties for example in a few hereditary conditions (e.g. Klinefelter disorder), a few instances of cryptorchidism or even Sertoli cell-only disorder along with attained problems by contamination (orchitis), surgical treatment (strain, cancer), radiation, or perhaps some other reasons. Mast cells discharging inflammatory mediators seem to instantly reduce sperm motility in a conceivably reversible way, and also might be a typical pathophysiological system for a lot of reasons resulting in swelling. Testicular Azoospermia is a type of Non-obstructive Azoospermia.

Normally, adult males with unexplained hyper gonadotropic Azoospermia have to go through a chromosomal assessment.


In post-testicular Azoospermia sperm is created but is not ejaculated a disorder that has an effect on 7–51% of Azoospermic males. The primary root cause is a physiological blockage (obstructive Azoospermia) of the post- testicular genital tracts.

The most typical cause is a vasectomy carried out to bring about contraceptive sterility. Some other obstacles could be congenital (for instance agenesis of the vas deferens when observed in particular conditions of cystic fibrosis) or even attained, for example, ejaculatory duct blockage for example by contamination.

Ejaculatory issues consist of retrograde ejaculation and also anejaculation; through these issues, sperm is made but is not discharged.


Idiopathic Azoospermia is actually where there is no identified cause of the disease. It might be a consequence of several threat elements, like your age and also body weight. For instance, an analysis in 2013 found the end result that oligospermia, as well as Azoospermia, are substantially connected with being obese (probability ratio 1.1), overweight (odds ratio 1.3) as well as morbidly fat (odds ratio 2.0), yet the source of it is not known. The evaluation noticed absolutely no considerable association between oligospermia and also becoming underweight described our IVF specialist in Kolkata Dr. Proshun Bera ( Indira IVF centre in Kolkata).

How do genetic factors affect Azoospermia? What is the role genetic factor in Azoospermia?

Answer: Hereditary elements could cause pre-testicular, testicular, as well as post-testicular Azoospermia (or even oligospermia) as well as consist of the following conditions: The rate of chromosomal irregularities is inversely proportional to the semen number, hence adult males with it face a threat to get a 10–15% (some other resources citing 15–20% occurrence) irregularities on karyotyping as opposed to around <1 % of the fertile men populace.

Pre-testicular Azoospermia might be due to congenital hypopituitarism, Kallmann’s disorder, Prader-Willi disorder as well as other hereditary problems that result in GnRH or even gonadotropin inadequacy. Testicular Azoospermia is observed in Klinefelter disorder (XXY) as well as the XX men problem. Additionally, 13% of adult males with it get a malfunctioning spermatogenesis which is related to problems of the Y chromosome. These kinds of problems are usually de novo microdeletions and even have an effect on typically the extended hand of the chromosome.

A portion of the extended arm of the Y chromosome continues to be referred to as Azoospermia Factor (AZF) at Yq11 as well as subdivided into AZFa, AZFb, AZFc and also perhaps a lot more subsections. Problems in this field can result in oligospermia or even Azoospermia, nevertheless, a good genotype-phenotype connection has not been accomplished. Spermatogenesis is malfunctioning with gene deficiencies for the androgen receptor.

Post-testicular Azoospermia may be seen with some aim mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene usually connected with congenital vas deferens irregularities.

Hereditary counselling is suggested for adult males with hereditary reasons for Azoospermia. When it comes to reproduction, it has to be regarded as in case the hereditary defect might be transferred to the children advised our infertility specialist in Hyderabad Dr. Swati Mothe ( Indira IVF clinic in Hyderabad).

How is Azoospermia diagnosed?

Answer: Azoospermia is normally identified when having an infertility study. This is demonstrated on the basis of 2 semen study estimates carried out at different instances (whenever the seminal specimen after centrifugation demonstrates no sperm under the microscope) and also needs an extra work-up.

The study consists of a historical past, a physical exam such as a comprehensive assessment of the scrotum as well as testes, lab tests, as well as possibly imaging. Historical past consists of the overall health, sexual well-being, past fertility, sexual desire, as well as sexual activity.

Past contact with numerous agents must be queried like health care elements such as hormone/steroid treatment, antibiotics, 5-ASA inhibitors (sulfasalazine), alpha-blockers, five alpha-reductase inhibitors, chemotherapeutic agencies, chemical pesticides, recreational medications (marijuana, far too much alcoholic beverages), and high-temperature exposure of the testes.

A historical past of surgical treatments of the genital process has to be elicited. The background has to be evaluated to search for hereditary irregularities.

Congenital absence of the vas deferens might be detectable on physical exam that can be established by a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). In case established a hereditary assessment for cystic fibrosis is within the order.

Transrectal ultrasound may also evaluate Azoospermia due to blockage, or even anomalies associated with blockage of the ejaculatory duct, like irregularities within the duct in itself, a median cyst of the prostate (suggesting a use for cyst aspiration), or perhaps an disability of the seminal vesicles to grow to be enlarged or simply emptied. Retrograde ejaculation is identified by evaluating post-ejaculatory urine for the existence of sperm after rendering it alkaline and even centrifuging it.

Low levels of LH and also FSH with lower or just regular testosterone ranges are an indicator of pre-testicular issues, although increased levels of gonadotropins show testicular issues. But, frequently this difference is uncertain as well as the separation between obstructive as opposed to Non-obstructive Azoospermia may need a testicular biopsy.

However, “In Azoospermic adult males with a standard ejaculate amount, FSH serum levels more than 2 times the higher limits of the standard range is dependable diagnostic of dysfunctional spermatogenesis and also, if discovered, a diagnostic testicular biopsy is normally not necessary, even though absolutely no consensus is available on such an issue.” And also, exorbitantly high amounts of FSH (>45 ID/mL) are actually interlinked with profitable microdissection testicular sperm extraction

Serum inhibin-B weakly reveals existence of sperm cells in the testes, elevating probabilities for effectively attaining conception by means of testicular sperm extraction (TESE), even though the relationship is not really significant, getting a level of sensitivity of 0.65 (95% confidence interval: 0.56–0.74) as well as a specificity of 0.83 (CI: 0.64–0.93) for forecast the existence of sperm in the testes in Non-obstructive Azoospermia.

Seminal plasma proteins TEX101 and also ECM1 were most recently presented for the different medical diagnosis of Azoospermia types as well as subtypes, and even for the forecast of TESE result. Mount Sinai Hospital, Canada began medical test to evaluate this concept in 2016.

It is strongly recommended that guy’s major hypopituitarism might be related to a hereditary result in; a genetic assessment is suggested in adult males with it as a result of primary hypopituitarism. As Indira IVF is one of the best IVF hospitals in Hyderabad we always advise Azoospermic adult males with testicular malfunction to go through karyotype, as well as Y-micro-deletion assessment, notified Dr. Proshun Bera ( Indira IVF centre in Navi Mumbai).

How is Azoospermia treated?

Answer: Pre- as well as post-testicular Azoospermia, are often correctable, although testicular Azoospermia is normally everlasting. In the previous, the reason for the Azoospermia has to be taken into consideration also it reveals the opportunities to handle this case perfectly.

Hence adult men with Azoospermia as a result of hyperprolactinemia might recommence sperm generation after treatments for hyperprolactinemia or even adult males whose sperm generation is suppressed by exogenous androgens are supposed to generate sperm after termination of androgen ingestion. In circumstances wherein the testes are standard yet unstimulated, gonadotropin treatment may be anticipated to bring about sperm generation.

An important development in recent times continues to be the development of IVF with ICSI that allows profitable fertilization despite immature sperm or perhaps sperm received instantly from testicular cells. IVF-ICSI provides for maternity in partners wherein the male has got irreversible testicular Azoospermia so long as you are able to recoup sperm materials from the testes.

Hence males with non-mosaic Klinefelter disorder have fathered kids utilizing IVF-ICSI. Pregnancies are actually attained in conditions wherein Azoospermia was related to cryptorchism and sperm in which acquired by testicular sperm extraction (TESE).

In adult males with post-testicular Azoospermia, numerous methods can be found. For obstructive Azoospermia IVF-ICSI or simply surgical treatment can be utilized as well as personal elements have to be taken into consideration for the selection of treatment method. Drugs might be useful for retrograde ejaculation concluded Dr. Swati Mothe ( Indira IVF infertility clinic and test tube baby centre in Hyderabad).





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