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In certain circumstances, infertile females may experience irregular menstrual cycles and males with infertility may show indicators of hormonal abnormalities, such as changes in hair growth or sexual function. In India, an estimated 27.5 million couples are afflicted by infertility.

It has been found that in a third of cases, infertility is due to constitutive conditions in the female, another third due to health conditions in the male partner, and the remainder due to both partners.

The following factors raise the chances of infertility in both males and females:

  • Age (over age 35 for women or over 40 for men)
  • Diabetes
  • Eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia.
  • Excessive alcohol use and stress
  • Exposure to environmental toxins, such as lead and pesticides
  • Radiation therapy or other cancer treatments
  • Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
  • Stress
  • Substance abuse
  • Weight problems (obesity or underweight)

Infertility can be of two types:

  • Primary fertility – inability of a couple to conceive at all
  • Secondary fertility – inability a couple to conceive after having naturally conceived and having children in the past

The cause of infertility can be hard to define, but it can be traced to different health conditions caused by low levels of specific hormones in both males and females, as well as problems with ovulation in females. There are a number of treatments can substantially increase chances of becoming pregnant. Hormone therapy, fertility medications, and surgery are among them. Assisted reproduction technology (ART) treatments like in vitro fertilisation (IVF) involves a variety of medical methods that can help couples grow their family.

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