Author Name: Dr. Dayanidhi on August 14, 2020

Infertility is clinically defined as women and men who cannot achieve pregnancy even after 1 year of regular intercourse without using birth control. There are many different medical conditions and other factors that can contribute to fertility problems and it has been seen that approximately 35% is due to male factors, 35% is due to female factors, 20% of cases have a combination of both male and female factors, and the last 10% are unexplained causes.

The causes of male infertility may be due to a number of causes like low or no sperm production ,problems during sperm development and transport inside the male reproductive tract ,abnormal sperm function or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm, low semen analysis parameters (sperm count, motility and morphology), and sperm aneuploidy or the incorrect number of chromosomes .In some cases it is even seen that semen analysis is normal however due to sperm issues fertilization and proper embryo development is affected. Illnesses, injuries, chronic health problems, lifestyle choices and other factors play an important role in causing male infertility.

However, the good news is that many cases of male infertility can be treated by life style changes. Other patients must undergo assisted reproduction technologies such as IUI or IVF or ICSI in order to achieve a successful pregnancy with their partner. In IUI at the time of ovulation, sperm are injected directly up into the uterus . In IVF sperms are mixed with multiple eggs collected from the woman in a petri dish. Fertilized eggs are then placed in the uterus. In ICSI a single sperm is injected through a tiny needle into an egg. The fertilized egg is then implanted in the uterus. ICSI can be performed when sperm counts are extremely low or abnormal has dramatically changed the treatment available for even the most severe male factor infertility. Because of this technique, 90% of all infertile men have the potential to conceive their own genetic child.

For male patients with azoospermia (no sperm in semen analysis), it is first established that whether it is obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia. If on FNAC sperms are found in testes, then these can be used for ICSI and if not then donor sperm is often used to achieve pregnancy.
With advancement in technology various treatment options are available for male factor infertility to fulfil their dream of pregnancy.

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