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What are the causes of Infertility in Men?

Male infertility is a medical condition in which the male partner tries for a year or more to conceive a child with a fertile female partner but is unsuccessful. There are many prevalent reasons of infertility in males, and one single cause cannot be pinpointed. Low sperm counts or slow sperm motility, structural issues with the reproductive system, hormone imbalances, genetic problems, or certain medical disorders like diabetes or infections are some of the common causes of male infertility. Let’s explore them in detail below:

1. Low Sperm Count: Also known as Oligospermia, a low sperm count is the main factor in male infertility. Numerous things, such as hormonal imbalances, genetic flaws, or medical conditions like infections or varicoceles, can contribute to its development.

2. Poor Sperm Motility: Sperm that can't swim well won't be able to get to an egg and fertilize it. Hormonal imbalances, genetic flaws, or harm to the reproductive system can all contribute to poor sperm motility.

3. Abnormal Sperm Form: Teratozoospermia, commonly known as abnormal sperm shape, might lower fertilization rates. Genetic flaws, illnesses, or exposure to poisons in the environment can all contribute to this.

4. Reproductive System Obstructions: Sperm cannot be ejaculated if the tubes from the testicles to the penis are blocked. Infections, inflammation, or scarring from prior operations or injuries can all contribute to this.

5. Varicocele: This is an enlargement of the veins that drain the testicles, and it may cause less and lower-quality sperm to be produced. This, in turn, can cause male infertility.

6. Hormonal Imbalances: Infertility can result from issues with hormone production or regulation. Disorders of the thyroid or hypogonadism may be the cause of this.

7. Genetic Defects: Sperm production and functionality can be impacted by genetic flaws. Male infertility can result from a number of genetic disorders, such as Klinefelter syndrome, Y chromosomal deletions, or cystic fibrosis.

8. Medical Issues: Male infertility can be exacerbated by illnesses including diabetes, high blood pressure, or sexually transmitted infections.

9. Lifestyle Variables: It is the leading cause of infertility in males, including smoking, binge drinking, drug use, and exposure to chemicals in the environment.

It's important to remember that there are a variety of male infertility causes and that the best course of action requires a full medical evaluation.

Signs & Symptoms

Male infertility frequently has no overt symptoms, and men may not even be aware of their condition until they attempt conception with their spouse. There are, however, a few potential warning signs and symptoms that could point to a male fertility issue. These consist of the following:

  • Having trouble becoming pregnant with a fertile partner after a year of consistent, unprotected sex.
  • A semen assay that reveals a low sperm count or poor sperm motility
  • Testicular or scrotal pain, swelling, or lumps
  • Problems getting or keeping an erection or erectile dysfunction
  • Loss of face or body hair, along with other hormonal imbalance symptoms
  • Painful ejaculation or other ejaculatory issues
  • Past health issues or treatments that could have an impact
  • Family history of infertility or genetic conditions that can affect fertility

Diagnosis of Male Infertility:

A complete medical history, physical examination, and several tests to assess sperm count, motility, morphology, and the general health of the reproductive system are typically used to diagnose male infertility. The following are a few typical diagnostic tests performed to assess male infertility:

1.Semen Analysis: The most popular test for assessing male fertility is this one. It entails examining a sample of semen to count the sperm, assess their motility, and determine their morphology. Low sperm count, poor sperm motility, and irregular sperm shape are among the conditions that this test can assist in detecting.

2.Hormone Testing: Blood tests can determine the levels of several hormones, including testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and prolactin, which are all involved in the creation of sperm. Hormone abnormalities may be a factor.

3.Genetic Testing: Genetic testing can detect genetic anomalies, such as Klinefelter syndrome, Y chromosomal deletions, or cystic fibrosis, that may impair male fertility.

4.Ultrasound: An ultrasound can produce images of the testicles, epididymis, and vas deferens in the male reproductive system. Any structural anomalies, such as blockages or varicoceles, can be found with the aid of this test.

5.Testicular Biopsy: To examine the development and generation of sperm, a small piece of testicular tissue is removed during a testicular biopsy. This test can be used to detect conditions like low sperm production or maturation concerns.

Treatment Options for Male Infertility

Depending on the underlying cause of the problem, there are many ways for treating male infertility. Here are some typical medical options:

1.Medication: If hormonal imbalances are the root cause of male infertility, drugs such as clomiphene citrate or gonadotropin injections may be administered to help boost sperm production.

2.Surgery: Sometimes, anatomical problems causing male infertility, such as varicoceles, blockages, or obstructions in the reproductive system, may require surgery to be corrected.

3.Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART): Using ART techniques like In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), Intrauterine Insemination (IUI), or Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) can assist in overcoming male infertility. These methods entail gathering and preparing sperm before injecting them directly into the reproductive system or eggs of the female spouse to accomplish fertilization.

4.Lifestyle Modifications: Making lifestyle modifications, including giving up smoking, cutting back on alcohol, maintaining a healthy weight, and minimizing exposure to environmental pollutants, may help enhance fertility and improve the quality of sperm.

5.Counseling: Couples dealing with male infertility may find counseling useful as infertility may be a stressful and emotional experience. Couples can explore different family-building possibilities, handle relationship challenges, and deal with the stress of infertility with the aid of counseling.

Not all cases of male infertility can be addressed, and some couples may look into alternate family-building options like donor insemination or adoption. To precisely diagnose and effectively treat male infertility, you can always rely on the top fertility specialists at Indira IVF. Visit your nearest centre today or call 18003092323 to know more.

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