Author Name: Dr. Nandini Devi on August 14, 2020
Infertility is defined as the inability of a sexually active, non-contracepting couple to achieve pregnancy within 1 year. Infertility is caused by various factors. Previously it was believed that female partners are solely responsible for infertility, which is not true. Female partners contribute 30-40% for infertility, male partner also contribute 30-40% for infertility, 20% of the cases have a combination of both male and female factors and 10% of the cases are unexplained. As the male factor contribute to infertility as much as that of female factor, we need to know, what are the causes for male factor infertility, their symptoms if any, diagnosis and the treatment options.
The causes of male infertility are hormonal imbalance, Infection, Varicocele, erectile dysfunction, retrograde ejaculation, cancer, exposure to radiation or heavy metals, chemicals, certain drugs, sedentary lifestyle, obesity. Mostly male partner, doesnt have any symptoms. They are accidently diagnosed, in their routine semen analysis. They may have low sperm count, low sperm motility and morphology. Further evaluation and treatment depends on the sperm concentration. Some of them respond well to the medical treatment and lifestyle modification. Some of them may need assisted reproductive techniques like IUI, IVF,ICSI.
Some male patients may present with no sperms in semen analysis(Azoospermia). It is necessary to evaluate the cause of azoospermia and to treat the cause. In these cases sperms may be obtained by TESA/TESE, and these sperms can be used for ICSI.
With the recent advancements in the field of assisted reproductive techniques, various treatment options are available for male factor infertility, to fulfil the dreams of having their own genetic child.
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