Author Name: Dr. Poonam Pandotra || Mentor Name: Dr. Shubhdeep Bhattacharya on April 13, 2020

INTRODUCTION
To have a healthy pregnancy and to carry that pregnancy to term is a very complicated process. If something goes wrong during this process, it can lead to infertility.

DEFINITION:
When a sexually active couple, is unable to get pregnant even after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, is considered infertile. If we talk about distribution of causes among females and males, about 40% of cases are due to female factors, 30% are due to male factors, 20% are a combination of both, and in about 10%, the cause is unknown also referred to as unexplained infertility.

Lets try to understand how a natural pregnancy happens :

• Oocyte or egg forms and attain an adequate size in either of the ovaries.

• Egg is released each month and relation of fallopian tube and ovary should be normal so that egg can come into the tube.

• A sperm if present in fallopian tube it fertilize the egg.

• Fertilised egg travels through the fallopian tubes and attach (implant) in the lining of the uterus.
If there is a problem at any step, infertility can happen.

Chances of getting pregnant are affected by the length of sexual exposure, frequency of coitus, and couple’s age. Young aged couples have 25% chances to conceive after 1 month of unprotected intercourse; 70% of the couple’s conceive by 6 months, and 90% of the couples conceive by 1 year. Only 5% of the couples will conceive after one and a half year or two years. Frequency of coitus twice weekly is considered adequate. Chances of getting pregnant decrease after 35yrs of age in females. So, if a female marries after 35 yrs, investigations should be initiated after 6 months.

In this article we will discuss mainly female factors responsible for infertility.

Causes of female infertility can be divided into three broad categories. These categories are further discussed below in detail.

1. Defective Ovulation :

It occurs because of the following causes:

A) Endocrine disorders: The dysfunction of hypothalamus and pituitary gland can lead to an excess amount of prolactin or deficiency of FSH or LH, this may prevent ovulation. Adrenals and thyroid may also delay ovulation. In luteal phase defect, when there is inadequate production of progesterone by the corpus luteum, the fertilized egg may not be able to implant , therefore causing infertility.

B)Physical disorders: Certain physical disorders such as obesity, anorexia nervosa, and excessive exercise may lead to overweight or malnutrition, and later abnormal menstrual cycle.

C)Ovarian disorders: Polycystic ovarian disease (PCO) can lead to infertility because of an increased amount of testosterone and reversal of LH:FSH ratio that hinder formation of dominant follicle from the ovarian follicles, causing to formation of multiple cysts in ovaries thus leading to irregular cycles and female infertility.

D)Endometriosis: In this condition, uterine lining(endometrium) implants outside uterine cavity i.e; in ovaries, fallopian tubes or pelvis or vagina. These implants form fluid- filled and blood filled cysts that grow with each menstrual cycle, and eventually turn into chocolate cysts , blisters and scars. When it implants in ovaries, it decreases egg reserve in ovaries.

2.Defective Transport :

When fallopian tubes are blocked, eggs are not able to move from the ovaries to tubes and sperm is not able to reach the egg for fertilization

Defective transport of ovum and sperm can occur because of the following:

A)Ovum: Occurrence of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), gonorrhea, peritonitis, previous tubal surgery, fimbrial adhesions, and scars of endometriosis block the passage of the egg through the fallopian tubes by kinking of tubes ; as a result the egg is not released or trapped, therefore, delaying conception.

B) Scar tissue: After abdominal surgeries, presence of scar tissue and intra abdominal adhesions may alter the relation of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus, resulting in infertility.

C)Sperm: Presence of psychosexual problems such as vaginismus and dyspareunia are more common in 20-24 years aged females and may hinder fertilization.

D)Cervical factor: Trauma, surgery, antisperm antibodies , cervical mucus may also delay pregnancy.
E) Uterine fibroids: Benign growths that appear within and around the wall of the uterus. Most women conceive easily despite having fibroids. However, some women with fibroids may not be able to get pregnant naturally or may have multiple miscarriages or preterm labour and need treatment for the same.
G) Polyps: Noncancerous growths on the lining of the uterus in the cavity. They interfere with the function of the uterus and make it difficult for a woman to get pregnant and to remain pregnant after conception and thus leading to female infertility.

3.Defective Implantation:

It occurs because of the following causes:
A) Congenital anomalies and fibroids: Anomalies such as unicornuate or bicornuate uterus, fibroids near uterine lining(endometrium), near fallopian tubes or cervix may alter implantation of blastocyst and cause infertility.

B) Genetic defects in the embryo

C) Thin endometrium

D) Endometriosis

F) Progesterone resistance or deficiency

G) Scar tissue or adhesions in the endometrial cavity from previous injuries, infections, or surgery may increase the risk of miscarriage and may interfere with implantation, thus leading to female infertility.

4.Autoimmune Disorders:

Autoimmune disorder can cause, ovarian failure, testicular failure, implantation failure, and pregnancy loss. Inflammation of blood vessels associated with other conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus and diabetes mellitus can cause infertility. Autoantibodies such as anti-phospholipid, anti-thyroid, or antinuclear antibodies can directly associated with infertility.

So, in nutshell, if at all you think that you are having a difficulty getting pregnant or having frequent pregnancy loss, do visit your doctor at the earliest and find the CAUSE.

You may also link with us on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Linkedin, Youtube & Pinterest

Talk to the best team of fertility experts in the country today for all your pregnancy and fertility-related queries.

Call now 18003092323

(Visited 9 times, 1 visits today)
guest
0 Comments
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments

RELATED BLOG

PCOS

PCOS Awareness Month – Everything You Need to Know about PCOS and its Prevention

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or...
Read More
IVF

A Complete IVF Guide: All You Need to Know About IVF

1. When to consult for...
Read More
IVF

Is Covid-19 Vaccination dangerous for pregnant women? Know the Benefits and Risks

What do we know today...
Read More
IVF

The Impact of Covid-19 on Pregnant Women & their Babies

Pregnant women and those in...
Read More
IVF

IVF Treatment in Covid-19 Age: Yes or No?

IVF in Pandemic: Safety Measures...
Read More
IVF

Pregnancy in COVID-19: What are the Risks?

Is the infection more dangerous...
Read More
IVF

Diet Plan for Lactating Mothers: What to eat while breastfeeding?

You know breast milk is...
Read More
IVF

आईवीएफ में जुड़वा बच्चेः आईवीएफ गर्भावस्था और एकाधिक प्रेगनेंसी

सामान्य जुड़वा बच्चे बनाम आईवीएफ...
Read More
IVF

Right Time For IVF: Indications and Contraindications

The IVF procedure can be...
Read More
Female Infertility Hindi

बच्चेदानी में सूजन: लक्षण, कारण, निदान, एवं उपचार

एंडोमेट्रैटिस (Endometritis) अथवा बच्चेदानी में...
Read More
Hindi IVF

आईवीएफ के लिए ऋण: एक अवलोकन

संतान की चाह रखने वाले...
Read More
Hindi IVF

कैसे करें एक सही आईवीएफ सेंटर का चयन?

आईवीएफ एक सुप्रसिद्ध सहायक प्रजनन...
Read More
Hindi

जानिए आप प्रेगनेंट हैं या नहीं

प्रेगनेंसी के 10 प्रमुख लक्षण...
Read More
Female Infertility

7 things You Must Discuss with Gynaecologist

With female friends or people...
Read More
Tamil

உங்கள் பிறக்காத குழந்தையைப் புரிந்துகொள்வோம்: கருவில் குழந்தை எப்படி வளர்கிறது!

கீழ்காணுமாறு ஒவ்வொரு வாரமும் கரு வளர்ச்சியடைவதை...
Read More
Kannada

ನಿಮಗೆ ಹುಟ್ಟಲಿರುವ ಮಗುವನ್ನು ಅರ್ಥಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವುದು: ಗರ್ಭದಲ್ಲಿ ಮಗು ಹೇಗೆ ಬೆಳೆಯುತ್ತದೆ!

ವಾರದಿಂದ ವಾರಕ್ಕೆ ಭ್ರೂಣ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಯಬಗ್ಗೆ ಎಲ್ಲವನ್ನೂ...
Read More
Kannada

ಪಿಸಿಒಡಿ – ಕಾರಣಗಳು, ಲಕ್ಷಣಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಚಿಕಿತ್ಸೆ

ಪಾಲಿಸಿಸ್ಟಿಕ್ ಅಂಡಾಶಯದ ಕಾಯಿಲೆ (ಪಿಸಿಒಡಿ)ಯು ಮಹಿಳೆಯರಲ್ಲಿ...
Read More
Kannada

ಅಂಡಾಶಯದ ಸಿಸ್ಟ್ (ಅಂಡಾಶಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಗಡ್ಡೆ): ಲಕ್ಷಣಗಳು, ಕಾರಣಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಚಿಕಿತ್ಸೆ

ಅಂಡಾಶಯದ ಸಿಸ್ಟ್ (ಅಂಡಾಶಯದ ಸಿಸ್ಟ್‌ಗಳು) ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯವಾಗಿ...
Read More
Kannada

ಗರ್ಭಪಾತದ ಲಕ್ಷಣಗಳು, ಕಾರಣಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ರೋಗನಿರ್ಣಯವನ್ನು ತಿಳಿಯಿರಿ

ಗರ್ಭಪಾತವಾಗುವುದು ಅಪರೂಪದ ವಿದ್ಯಮಾನವಲ್ಲ. ಇದು 15...
Read More
Hindi PCOD

भ्रूण स्थानांतरण के बाद आहार

इन विट्रो फर्टिलाइजेशन (IVF) एक...
Read More
Request Call Back
IVF
IVF telephone
Book An Appointment